Pediatric Nephrology

Structural Kidney Abnormalities Program

Children with structural congenital abnormalities of the kidney can be diagnosed with these disorders either prenatally or after birth. Once a diagnosis has been made, the Division of Pediatric Nephrology at Tufts Medical Center in Boston works closely with our Pediatric Urology colleagues to evaluate these patients who may have abnormal kidney function in addition to structural anomalies.


Hydronephrosis is the most common structural abnormality we treat. Today, it is often found during a prenatal ultrasound as an enlargement of the ureter, the tube that connects the kidney to the bladder. There are various causes of this enlargement that range from a common structural issue that will resolve over time to a severe abnormality that requires surgical intervention and is often also associated with kidney dysfunction. Our expert pediatric nephrologists work closely with Pediatric Urology to provide the most effective evaluation and treatment for these patients.

Eptopic kidney

Eptopic kidneys are found somewhere in the body other than their appropriate place. They include pelvic kidneys and horseshoe kidneys. These kidneys often require nephrology evaluation and follow up because of common associated structural and functional abnormalities including kidney stones, hydronephrosis and vesicoureteral reflux.  We often consult with Pediatric Urology on these patients as well.

Solitary kidney

Although most children are born with two kidneys, a solitary kidney is a relatively common condition, occurring in 1 in 600 children. Having one kidney often will have little affect on your child's health, although it may lead to a number of issues over time including: 

  • High blood pressure
  • Proteinuria
  • Reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR) 

Our experts in the Division of Pediatric Nephrology will continuously monitor your child for kidney function to prevent or delay the above conditions. We will also work with your family to help regulate your child's kidney by promoting a healthy diet and avoiding injury.

Lawrence S. Milner, MD

Lawrence S. Milner, MD

Accepting New Patients

Virtual Appointments Available

Title(s): Chief, Division of Pediatric Nephrology; Professor, Tufts University School of Medicine
Department(s): Pediatrics, Pediatric Nephrology
Appt. Phone: 617-636-7429
Fax #: 617-636-0066

Renal failure, acute and chronic, glomerular disease (especially urine microscopy), liver related renal disease, hypertension, urinary tract infection, fluid and electrolyte imbalance, acute dialysis (peritoneal, hemodialysis and hemofiltration), transplantation

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To make an appointment with one of our expert Pediatric Nephrologists, please call 617-636-8100.